1. Yellow Jacket Air Conditioner Parts

    Showing all 3 results on How to Attach an Air Conditioning Manifold Gauge and Perform Basic Refrigerant Pressure Readings If you suspect your home’s central air conditioning system isn’t operating properly, you can tell a lot simply by measuring the system’s refrigerant pressures. It may seem intimidating to perform your own system pressure tests, but it is actually quite straightforward to do so. Below is how to measure your central air conditioning system’s pressures to help know whether or not you should contact a technician for servicing:

    The equipment needed Measuring the system’s pressure requires a few tools and pieces of equipment. Below is what you need: Air conditioning manifold gauge – a basic air conditioning gauge actually consists of two related, but separate, gauges. In addition, three hoses—red, blue and yellow in color—lead to the gauge manifold that joins both gauges and their hand-valves. You will not need to use the yellow hose for measuring your system pressure. Most gauges are designed to be used with systems containing different types of refrigerants (e.g., R-22), so be sure to know which scale is appropriate for your system when referencing the gauges. Charging chart – this is a visual reference that provides detailed data about normal system pressures within both the suction and high-pressure lines. This information is available in the manufacturer’s service manual for your particular system model. • Outdoor thermometer • Adjustable wrench • The measurement procedure 1.Turn off the main power switch for the system – most central air conditioning systems have an outdoor main power switch located near the outside unit; be sure to turn off the power to the system to prevent electrical accidents or damage to the system.

    1. Locate your system’s gauge connection valves – central air conditioning systems contain two refrigerant lines connected to the outside units that house the condensers and compressors. The larger diameter line is the suction line that returns gaseous refrigerants to the condenser. The smaller diameter line is the high-pressure line, which is sometimes called the liquid line. At the point where the lines enter the outside unit, look closely and you will see valves that are most likely capped shut. These valves are for the purpose of monitoring refrigerant pressures, both suction and high-pressure.
  2. Air Conditioner Filters - AC Filters Superstore

    Air Conditioner Filters CHOOSE A BRAND: Showing all 9 results The smart Trick of Sydney Air Conditioning That No One is Discussing Receiving an air con device has grown to be best precedence today due to shifting climatic conditions we’re encountering. Climactic variations have resulted in hotter summers and colder winters on account of which it is starting to become nearly impossible to handle without the need of artificial help. There are several varieties of air conditioners out there which makes your undertaking of selecting one particular very difficult. Somewhat information about the assorted types of it will assist you to make your selection given that they have different characteristics that accommodate different types of residences. Additionally, some forms are more expensive than Other individuals which is also a factor that You may have to choose under consideration.

    Fundamental Elements For Air Conditioning Sydney Guide – The Options Specialising in commercial and household ducted air conditioning, We’ve got qualified professionals with above thirty a long time experience, working with best models for example Panasonic, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Daikin and Actron Air. Condition from the artwork technologies makes sure that we put in low maintenance systems that correctly Regulate the weather and provide an environment void of hot and cold places.

    Believe in Perfect Air to the best possible air conditioning Sydney provides. Simply call our helpful staff members now for the best advice and a range of possibilities to fit your demands and funds. Basic Home Maintenance : How to Change an Air Conditioner Filter

    Elevator Air Conditioning
    Elevator air conditioning has fast becoming a popular concept around the world. The primary reason for installing an elevator air conditioner is the comfort that it provides while travelling in the elevator. It stabilizes the condition of the air inside the lift car. Some elevator air conditioner can be used in countries with cold climate if a the most at is used to reverse the refrigeration cycle to warm the lift car.

    One of the many benefits of installing an elevator air con is the clean air that it provides. Air is sucked from the elevator’s hoist way straight into the car using a motorised fan. The air sucked into the hoist way may be filled with dust mites, germs and bacteria. With an elevator air con, air provided is much cleaner because the cold air is the same air that comes from the car itself.

  3. Air Innovations Humidifiers

    Air surrounds us everywhere, and its parameters have a direct impact on many processes in animate and inanimate nature. One of the most important parameters of air is its humidity. The air, as the gas mixture can contain a certain amount of water (as water vapor).

    The amount of water that can be contained in the air (per unit volume or weight of air), is not constant and depends (mostly) on the air temperature. Humidity divided into absolute (the amount of moisture in kg contained in a unit volume or weight of air at the current time) and relative (measured as a percentage and represents the absolute humidity of the air at the moment, divided by the theoretical maximum under the given parameters of air absolute humidity).Normal (comfort) for man relative humidity is 40% -70%, however, not always the air around us has such moisture. For example, in winter, the cold outdoor air contains a very small amount of moisture (at low outdoor temperature, the air's ability to retain moisture too low). The relative humidity of outdoor air, thus, can be quite high. But, entering into the living room, the air is heated, its ability to hold moisture is increased, and the amount of moisture remains the same as in outdoor air. As a result the relative humidity is reduced to absolutely uncomfortable amounts (below 20%). Such air parameters lead to the dryness of the mucous membranes of a person, to hurt one's eyes, scratchy throat, reduced resistance to infections, and a growing number of diseases. Low relative humidity has other negative effects. Can crack wood furniture, flooring, plants suffer, greatly increases the amount of static electricity, which is dangerous for electronics. In the production of many technical processes are also sensitive to the level of relative humidity.

    Among the examples are the printing industry, warehouses, paper, wood products, tobacco products, food industry, production of electronic components and etc. etc. Thus, the ability to adjust the relative humidity is very useful, and often necessary. Humidification - the process of artificially increasing the amount of moisture contained in a unit volume or weight of air and, due to this, the increase of relative humidity. Humidification is carried out using the devices, systems, devices, called a humidifier. Basic principles and methods of humidification. Modern humidifiers are based, typically, on one of the following principles.

  4. Atomizers and Disk humidifiers

    Atomizers The principle of operation of the atomizer in something similar to the working principle of ultrasonic humidifiers. The difference between them mainly lies in the method of formation of water mist. In the atomizers water mist is formed either by blowing air under high pressure through the water through the nozzle or direct water spray from nozzles under pressure.

    Due to the similarity of the principle of operation, advantages and disadvantages of atomizers and ultrasonic humidifiers are also similar. Additionally, we note quite a noticeable level of noise during operation of the atomizer.

    Disk humidifiers The principle of operation of disk humidifiers are based on spraying water by using centrifugal forces of a rotating disk to a fine spray. Typically, disk humidifiers have lower maximum performance than humidifiers listed above. The advantages of disk humidifiers include low consumption of energy when compared with atomizers and ultrasonic humidifiers.

    disc-atomizer-fogger-humidifier-spare-parts-for-mist-maker-tank.jpg

    Additionally it should be noted that all types of modern humidifiers currently represent a fairly sophisticated device, equipped with modern efficient equipment and control valves. In varying degrees, moisturizers sensitive to the quality of water used and require periodic maintenance to prolong its service life.

  5. Steam humidifiers and Ultrasonic humidifiers

    Steam humidifiers The most common design of humidifiers, also called steam generators. Water vapor in such devices is obtained by heating and evaporation of water, after which, as a rule, the steam force is supplied by a fan or directly in the room or in the ventilation system with the help of steam lines and injectors. The steam generators can be electric and gas. Gas humidifiers are used as an energy source for evaporation of water from natural gas. Typically, they are used where there are difficulties in allocating the necessary for the operation of the steam humidifier electrical power.

    In electric steam generators steam is obtained by heating water by electricity. Electric steam humidifiers are divided into steam humidifiers with immersed electrodes and steam humidifiers with heating elements. Steam humidifiers with immersed electrodes heat the water by passing an electric current through it between submerged electrodes. For efficient operation of a humidifier of this type, the water should contain a sufficient amount of dissolved salts that provide the electrical conductivity of water. The steam generator heating elements to evaporate water using one or more electric heating elements and can work even with distilled water. The advantages of steam humidifiers air can be attributed to their relative simplicity, structural reliability, wide operating range. The main disadvantage of humidifiers this type can be considered their high energy requirements for work. Ultrasonic humidifiers. In ultrasound humidifiers water is atomized into tiny droplets by using a high-frequency oscillation and fan received water mist supplied into the space or the ventilation system. Little drops of water surface area is very large relative to the mass of water in the straw, so these drops instantly evaporate in dry air, increasing its humidity. Such humidifiers consume significantly less energy than steam humidifiers. However, their scope is somewhat narrower: ultrasonic humidifiers depend in their work on the parameters of ambient air (high relative humidity reduces the effectiveness of their work).

    In addition, the evaporation of large amounts of water requires large amounts of energy. During operation of the humidifier, energy is supplied from an external source (gas or electricity), whilst ultrasonic humidifiers energy is taken from the ambient air, reducing its temperature. Under certain circumstances this can lead to undesirable effects. Furthermore, due to the more complex structures, ultrasonic humidifiers are less undemanding compared to steam humidifiers.

  6. Shower Mixer Taps And Thermostatic Valves

    An improvement on this very simple arrangement, as far as showers over baths are concerned, is the bath/shower mixer. This resembles an ordinary mixer tap on a bath, except that a flexible metal hose rises from the centre of the mixer to a spray head which can be fixed at varying heights on the wall above the bath.

    Again the water is mixed by adjusting the hot and cold taps, and at this stage it will be coming out of the spout of the tap. When the required temperature has been reached you pull up a lever on the body of the tap and this diverts the water upwards to the spray head. Nowadays, showers in cubicles normally have what’s known as a manual mixing valve. This has two inlets, one for the hot and another for the cold supply; but the temperature is regulated by turning just one mixer knob. The flow may also be adjusted by turning another knob which is set round the outside of the temperature control. In this way you can control the water itiore quickly and positively than you could do if you had to adjust two separate taps (which tends to be a bit of a juggling act). Shower mixers are constantly being improved so that they are more convenient and safer to use. With one modern manual mixing valve, for example, the temperature of the water is controlled by turning a knurled knob, not unlike the handle of a tap. And the flow and on/off control is worked by pushing in or pulling out this knob You can therefore control the flow and temperature of the water in one movement. Another advantage of this kind of control is that the shower can be stopped instantly if the pressure on the cold side falls (as a result of a toilet being flushed or cold water being drawn off elsewhere in the house, for example). If this happened the shower would suddenly run very hot, but by flicking the control knob downwards the flow ceases. It’s not so serious if the pressure falls on the hot side, because the shower would just run cold. But again, to prevent discomfort the flow can be stopped quickly by flicking the control knob. However, prevention is better than cure and there are ways of organising the plumbing so that this problem can’t arise. To alleviate the danger it’s best to run the 15mm (1/2in) cold water supply pipe to the shower direct from the cold water storage cistern and not as a branch from the 22mm (¾in) distribution pipe to the bathroom. This will supply a continuous volume of cold water provided the cistern is working properly. Thermostatic valves Of course it may mean too much of an upheaval to lay in a new pipe run, but instead you could install a special thermostatic mixing valve. This enables you to pre-set the temperature of the shower water and this will remain constant despite fluctuations of pressure in the hot and cold supplies. And apart from this, thermostatic mixers provide just that extra margin of safety and assurance against discomfort. Before buying a thermostatic mixing valve, it’s important that you recognize its limitations as well as its advantages. These valves can deal with relatively minor fluctuations in pressure that can result from water being drawn off from one or other of the supply pipes. They can’t accommodate the great differences in pressure between a hot water supply under pressure from a storage cylinder and a cold supply taken direct from the main (in any case, you should never arrange your shower plumbing in this way).
    Some thermostatic valves even require a greater working hydraulic head’ (the vertical distance between the cold water cistern and the shower rose) than the 1 m (3ft) minimum that is usual for manual mixers. So it’s a good idea to check on these points and on the ‘head’ available before you buy one of them.

  7. The House Water Supply System

    The sub-main underneath the road is tapped by the ‘communication pipe’ which ends at the authority’s stop-valve. This is usually situated under the pavement about 300mm (1ft) outside the boundary of your property.

    The stop-valve is located at the bottom of a vertical guard’ pipe — about 1 meter (39in) deep — which is covered at the surface by a hinged metal cover. It should only be operated by the water authority and requires a special key to turn it. But in a real emergency you may be able to turn it yourself. In old houses it may be the only way of turning off the water supply. After this stop-valve the water enters the service pipe and from then on all pipes become your responsibility. The service pipe continues under the wall of the property at a depth of at least 750mm (2ft Gin) to protect it from frost —though some water authorities insist that it should be 900mm (3f1) deep. As it travels under the house wall or foundation it usually goes through an earthenware pipe to protect it from possible settlement which might cause it to fracture. To prevent any risk of freezing in cold weather the service pipe should not emerge above ground level until it is at least 600mm (2ft) inside the inside wall surface.
    Up to about 40 years ago, service pipes were usually made of lead (in tact the word plumbing originally stemmed from the Latin word for lead — plumbum). Today copper and polythene are used instead. The latter is particularly good as it is a poor conductor of heat and is less prone to freezing and fracture.

  8. The Service Pipe And Branch Supply Pipes

    The service pipe continues under the wall near the kitchen sink, which means that it is often attached to the inner face of the outside wall. This is contrary to the recommendation that it should be attached to an inside wall, and so such a pipe should be lagged with insulation material.

    The pipe should also be insulated if it comes through any sub-ground floor cavity where it would be subjected to the icy blasts of winter from under-floor ventilation. Again these precautions are both intended to minimize the risk of frost damage. When the service pipe rises above the ground floor it is called the ‘rising main’ and it eventually terminates in the supply cistern, which is usually in the roof cavity. The householder’s main stop-valve is usually found on the rising main a little way above floor level. This is the most important tap’ in the house. In any plumbing emergency — when bursts or leaks occur, for example, your first action should be to turn this tap off, thus isolating the house system from the mains water supply. The stop-valve should always be turned off when you go away if the house is going to be empty. In old houses the location of the stop- valve may vary considerably, it may be in the cellar, under the stairs, or even under a cover beneath the front path — or it may not exist at all, in which case the authority’s stop-valve is the only control. Branch supply pipes At least one ‘branch’ supply pipe eaves the rising main close above the stop-valve and drain tap — this is to the tap over the kitchen sink. This tap must be supplied direct from the main supply as it is supposed to provide all drinking and cooking water. Water which has been in a storage cistern is no longer considered drinkable, sometimes termed ‘potable’, as it may be slightly contaminated by debris in the storage cistern. Other branches may be taken at this point to an outside tap. or to a washing machine or dishwasher.
    The rising main continues upwards and while its ultimate destination is the cold water storage cistern the pipework in between will vary from house to house, depending on whether a ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’ system has been installed. In many areas indirect systems must be installed in new buildings, yet in Western Europe direct systems are the rule. Indirect systems have been encouraged because of the difficulty in maintaining constant mains pressure particularly at times of peak demand.
    Routing of most supplies through the storage cistern evens out fluctuations, and it also rules out the risk of ‘back siphonage whereby dirty water could be sucked back into the mains supply — though this rarely occurs. The 1976 drought in the UK provided good reason for indirect systems, since each house had an emergency supply in the storage cistern if the mains water had to be shut off.

  9. Top Reasons to Use Water Damage Services

    If there’s any cleanup that needs to be conducted in your home because of water damage, you’re definitely going to need someone professional to do the work. When you choose to hire a cleanup team from water damage services, you can be confident in getting the job done correctly.

    One of the top reasons to use a water damage service is that it will save you some money. It’s not cheap to cleanup up water damage. However, in hiring a competent service to do this, they’ll be able to point out repairs that need to be done and which of your things you can easily save. When you don’t have to replace absolutely everything, you’ll save a decent amount of money. You may even save money on the service if your insurance covers the cost. Another reason to hire a water damage service is to prevent mold. Professionals know how dangerous mold can be to your health and they’ll ensure that the water is cleaned up correctly to keep mold from forming in your home. They’re the people that know the right way to do this. Water damage services and flood restoration services all have the most effective equipment to make sure that the cleanup is done correctly. It would cost you a great deal of money to have to buy or rent the proper cleanup equipment you’ll need. In addition, the professionals already know how to operate this equipment and you would have to take time learning it. Last, but certainly not least, you want someone with the time and the experience to do the job right. Water cleanup is a tremendous job to undertake and most people don’t have time to do it the right way. The professionals have all the time and experience they need to get your water damage cleared. They already know how to do it and won’t have to take the time in educating themselves on the right way to do things.
    These are the top reasons you shouldn’t take on the job of water damage cleanup on your own. Find a professional water damage service and let these people do what they’re trained to do. You’ll be much happier if you do.

  10. Transform Your Bathroom with a Shower Enclosure

    With all of the stresses in people’s lives these days, there’s nothing like a long relaxing shower at the end of a horrendous day to put you back where you need to be. It also helps to have a shower that you can just hop into on a second’s notice rather than having to go to all the trouble of running a full bath.

    If you’re someone that loves a shower, you’ll most likely want to look into having a shower enclosure installed in your own bathroom. These not only provide a practical function, but it also adds some style and class to your home. If you want a feeling of spaciousness, an all glass quadrant shower enclosure can be the answer for you. These enclosures that are made from tempered safety glass lets light into the shower with you and makes shower time brighter. If you’ve got some decorative tiles in your bathroom that you want others to see, clear glass works perfectly. There are also various glass patterns that are colored, etched or moldered. When you choose a frameless shower enclosure, you’ll get an updated look that’s also easier to maintain than the traditional frames. All it takes is a squeegee to remove drops of water that cause mold to grow. While shopping for shower enclosures, don’t hesitate to ask questions and advice of the manufacturers. You’ll want a style that will fit in with the design you have in your bathroom. Consider such details as the type of finish your shower door hardware has. Your options range from brushed nickel and brass or satin chrome. This depends on the style of the bathroom fixtures you already have. Be sure to look at many shower doors so you can find the best one for your needs and with the right look.
    All it takes is a bit of shopping around to find the perfect shower enclosure for you. This door will give you many years of enjoyment because as much as a bath can provide relaxation, there’s just no comparison to waking up with a brisk shower. This is something that you’ll find out as soon as you decide to try out a glass enclosed shower.

  11. Understanding Kitchen Plumbing

    The kitchen is most likely one of the most active rooms in your house. This is particularly true if you have a family that loves cooking and eating. Frequently, the kitchen sink will develop leaks and other plumbing issues due to all the use it gets. If you’ve ever had to call a plumber to fix any of these things, you know how expensive that can be.

    If you’re interested in cutting down on those expenses, you should learn how to fix these plumbing issues yourself. Understanding kitchen plumbing isn’t as hard as you may think and it will help you save a lot of money in this particular area of home improvement. When you learn more about fixing your own kitchen plumbing issues, you’ll see just how much money you’ll save from not having to call a plumber. Simple kitchen plumbing is simple and nearly anyone that can read and comprehend what he’s reading can do it. Many manuals and handbooks on kitchen plumbing will help you study and gain the knowledge you need to fix something as soon as it breaks in your kitchen rather than having to wait your turn for the plumber. Take the time to study these. Your kitchen plumbing mostly includes faucet fixture, water supply and drain system. These are the main parts of the kitchen sink. Typically, this is the only area that needs some simple plumbing repairs. If you have a dishwasher, it’s typically attached to the kitchen water supply and drainage to let clean water come in while taking out the dirty water. There are only a few supply pipes along with a drain pipe. These supply pipes may lead to the dishwasher, main kitchen faucet and other appliances needing a water supply. Typically, they share one drain pipe to remove the dirty water or wastes from your home.
    There’s not a lot to learn about kitchen plumbing. When you have the basic information, you’ll learn and understand how your kitchen’s plumbing system works. This will help you understand the plumbing issues there. You can determine what’s causing the problem and how to fix it. Your kitchen’s plumbing system is quite simple and this means when something happens, you’ll be capable of taking on the job of fixing it.

  12. Understanding Water Supply

    Each one of us uses about 160 liters (35 gallons) of water a day, and takes it for granted. Only in a long spell of dry weather comes awareness that we should use it carefully. Our use is controlled by the supply system — this is how it works.

    In the last 50 years the consumption of water has almost doubled. Rising standards of living have given rise to increased consumption, and a greater awareness of the need for hygiene has also played a large role in increasing the demand. Faced with this high demand, supply sources have been hard pressed to keep up. Understanding Water Supply Where it comes from Water is supplied by the local water authority (or the Undertaking as it is known in the plumbing trade). After falling as rain it is collected in reservoirs which are ted by streams and rivers, or is pumped from underground wells. Water varies a lot in its chemical makeup since it picks up minerals and gases as it flows, If it picks up calcium, magnesium and sodium salts it will be hard – the menace of pipe systems. Before being distributed it is usually filtered through said and pebble beds to remove solids and organisms, and may have chlorine added to it to ensure that it is ‘potable’ — drinkable. Fluoride is also sometimes added for the protection of teeth. Distribution is carried out by a network of pipes starting with ‘trunk mains’ which may be as much as 61 0mm (24in) in diameter. These split into mains and sub-mains which run underneath streets and side streets. It is these sub-mains which are tapped by individual houses for their supply. The house system may be ‘direct’ in which all cold water supplies are piped direct from the rising main, with the cistern only being used to supply the hot water tank. Or it may be an ‘indirect’ system in which all coldwater supplies are taken from the cistern, with the exception of a direct supply to the kitchen sink for drinking purposes. For water to flow through the trunk mains — and eventually into your house — it must be under a certain amount of pressure. This pressure is assisted by pumps but it is vital that somewhere in the mains system the water should reach a height in a reservoir or water tower, higher than any domestic system it has to supply.

    The vertical distance through which the water ‘falls’ is known as the ‘pressure head and without it our cisterns would never fill up without a lot of expensive additional pumping. The storage cistern also provides a pressure head inside the house, which is why it’s preferable to have it in the roof space.

  13. Using a Locksmith to Open Your Safe

    Most people don’t realize just how much locks impact their lives. Locks are found everywhere. They protect you, your family, your home and your possessions. A secure home provides peace of mind. Many people use safes as a way to protect their most valuable possessions. The two types of safes are burglary and fire. Burglary safes are used to protect things such as money and jewelry from being stolen. Fire safes protect important papers and documents.

    Locks or combinations on safes can malfunction for various reasons. You may lose the key, the safe can get damaged or you simply forget the combination. Any of these situations can have you contacting a professional locksmith to help you. Locksmith services need to be high quality and worth the price they’re going to charge. Unless you’re a trained locksmith, trying to get into the safe on your own without a key or the right combination will simply damage the inside of the safe. In the end, that will cost you more money. That’s why you need to simply call a locksmith from the start. Safes can be vastly different from each other so there’s more than one way to open them. A professional locksmith will know all of the techniques required to open any safe. This experience is why you should call a locksmith before attempting to fix the problem on your own. A locksmith that’s highly skilled can use touch and sound to manipulate a dial combination into opening easily. Sometimes, it may be necessary for the locksmith to drill holes into your safe to get it unlocked, but that’s rare. New York City is a location where a high number of residents have safes in their homes and offices. If you have any issues with getting your safe to open in that city, you’ll be happy to know that there are NYC locksmith services all over the place. Many of these services work 24/7 so no matter what time of day or night you have a safe issue, someone will come and help you.
    You can simply look up locksmith NYC in the phone book and find multiple listings for professional locksmiths. In such a large city, you can imagine how busy they stay. However, even if you have to wait a little while, it’s still better to have a locksmith open your safe than to risk damaging it yourself.

  14. Water Supply System – Pipes And Taps

    Water leaves the storage cistern in distribution pipes which are usually 22mm (3/41n) or 15mm (1/2in) in diameter. In a direct system, supply from the cistern will usually only be to the hot water tank, and in an indirect system this link must also be direct — but other distribution pipes are used with branches to supply the other appliances — basins, baths and WC cisterns. Distribution pipes usually end in taps but in the case of a WC a low pressure ball-valve controls the flow.

    The WC in an indirect system has a low pressure ball-valve because when the water leaves the storage cistern it is no longer at mains pressure but at normal atmospheric pressure which is pressing down on the surface of the stored water. This means that the higher up the house a tap or other outlet is situated the lower will be the water pressure. In practice this means that you can’t have a tap in an indirect system which is above the level of its distribution outlet from the cistern. Showers are particularly affected by this difference of pressure, and if there is not sufficient ‘head to ‘drive’ the shower a special pump may have to be installed. Cold water supplied to the hot water tank is heated in two different ways again called indirect and direct systems — or, respectively, closed and open. In the latter the cold water is circulated through the boiler, where it is heated, and returned to the tank from where it flows to tapped outlets. In the indirect system the cold water supplied never actually goes to the boiler, instead it is heated in the tank by a coiled pipe or jacket containing hot water which is continuously circulating through the boiler. In either case a pump often helps the water flow through the boiler, and supplementary or alternative heat may come from an immersion heater. If there is no boiler but only an immersion heater in the tank the system is essentially direct with the heating of the water taking place in the tank rather than in the boiler.

    Draining the system Just above the rising main stop-valve should be a drain cock. With the stop-valve turned off the drain cock can be used to drain part of the cold water system when repairs are necessary — the hot water system has its own drain cock.

  15. Water Supply System – The Cisterns

    The ‘tank’ in your loft or attic is in fact a cistern’. Cisterns are not sealed — though they should be covered — and so are subject to atmospheric pressure. Tanks are completely sealed — as with a hot water storage tank — and are not subject to atmospheric pressure.

    Cold water cisterns have traditionally been made of galvanized mild steel and it is quite likely that you will find one like this in your loft. They are still available, but are not usually installed in new houses. Other materials used have been asbestos, cement, copper and glass fiber, but today the most common material is plastic, of which glass fibre reinforced polyester (GRP), polythene and polypropylene are the most common varieties.

    The advantages plastics have over all other cistern materials are their lightness in weight, resistance to corrosion and flexibility. Galvanizes steel is heavy and liable to corrode, while asbestos and cement are not only heavy but can become porous and are prone to accidental damage. Don’t forget the capacity of a typical cistern is 227 liters (50 gallons), and this water alone weighs nearly 0.25 tonne (1/4 ton), so all cisterns must be fully supported on the joists. With rigid materials such as steel the cistern can rest across the joists, but with plastic and glass fibre a platform should be installed to support the whole area of the bottom, otherwise the material may develop local weaknesses.

    Cisterns should be covered to prevent any contamination of the water. Where the underside of the roof is exposed dust and dirt are liable to fall in. The top and sides should also be insulated to minimize the risk of freezing. The bottom is left uncovered to allow rising warm air from rooms below to keep the water above freezing point, and so you shouldn’t insulate the roof space under the cistern.

    Cisterns were often installed before the roof was put on and if you want to replace yours, perhaps because it’s made of steel and is corroding, you may not be able to get it through the trap door. While it is sometimes suggested that a cistern should be cut up to get it out this is in tact a very heavy and arduous job in such a confined space and it would be better to maneuver it to one side and leave it in the loft, installing a new cistern alongside. Modern plastic cisterns can literally be folded up so they can be passed through small loft hatches.